Intrathecal Baclofen Pump | Powerful Treatment of Severe Spasticity
Written By Kobi Nathan, Pharm.D., M.Ed., CDP, BCGP, AGSF
Sleep Disorders
April 19, 2023

Dealing with spasticity can be challenging and may impact a person’s quality of life.

Intrathecal baclofen pumps offer targeted treatment for this condition, providing relief and improving mobility for many patients.

I’ve seen the life-changing effects this type of therapy has on my own patients who are recovering from traumatic brain and spinal cord injuries. It is literally a night-and-day difference for them. 

This therapy WORKS, but the use of intrathecal baclofen is only reserved for patients who are unresponsive to oral baclofen. 

In this article, we’ll explore the various aspects of intrathecal baclofen therapy, including how they work, who they’re suitable for, and what to expect during the implantation process.

What is spasticity?

Spasticity refers to involuntary muscle stiffness or spasms that can occur in individuals with certain neurological conditions such as multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, and spinal cord injuries.

This muscle tightness can limit movement, cause pain, and interfere with daily activities.

How can spasticity be treated?

There are several approaches to managing spasticity, including physical therapy, oral medications, and targeted interventions such as intrathecal baclofen pumps.

The choice of treatment depends on:

  • The severity of the condition.
  • The patient’s overall health.
  • Their specific needs.

What is Baclofen?

Baclofen is a muscle relaxant medication that works by inhibiting the transmission of nerve signals in the spinal cord, which helps reduce muscle stiffness and treat spasticity.

It is commonly used to manage spasticity in various neurological disorders.

Baclofen can be administered orally or directly into the spinal fluid via an intrathecal baclofen pump.

Learn all about Baclofen’s uses, mechanism of action, adverse effects, and more here.

What is a baclofen pump?

A baclofen pump, also known as an intrathecal baclofen pump, is a small, implantable device that delivers baclofen directly to the spinal fluid through the intrathecal space.

By bypassing the digestive system and targeting the medication’s delivery, the pump system allows for lower doses and fewer side effects than oral baclofen.

Who is a baclofen pump for?

Treatment of severe spasticity is usually delivered through the intrathecal route for patients who have not responded well to oral medications or other treatments.

Candidates for the pump may have conditions such as multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, or spinal cord injuries.

How is a baclofen pump implanted?

The baclofen pump is put in place through a surgical operation carried out while you are under general anesthesia.

This pump is a circular metal device, approximately 3 inches in diameter and 1 inch in thickness.

It is usually positioned just below the skin of the stomach, either to the left or right of the navel.

The tube responsible for administering the medicine into the spinal fluid extends from the pump to the area near the spine or within the brain where the baclofen dosage will best alleviate your symptoms.

What to expect before baclofen pump implantation surgery

Prior to the surgery, you will undergo a thorough evaluation, including a medical history review, physical examination, and imaging studies.

A test dose of intrathecal baclofen may be administered to ensure that you respond well to the medication.

What to do on the day of the baclofen pump implantation surgery

On the day of the surgery, you should follow your doctor’s instructions, which may include fasting and abstaining from certain medications.

The procedure typically takes 2-3 hours and is performed under general anesthesia.

What to expect after the baclofen pump implantation surgery

After the surgery, you will be monitored closely in the recovery room.

The pump will be programmed to deliver the prescribed dose of baclofen, and adjustments may be made as needed.

You can expect to stay in the hospital for 1-2 days before being discharged.

What happens after returning home from baclofen implantation surgery?

You must follow your doctor’s instructions for post-operative care, which may include pain management, wound care, and activity restrictions.

Follow-up appointments will be scheduled to monitor your progress and adjust the pump settings as needed.

The last thing we want to happen is that you are under-dosed and you start experiencing withdrawal symptoms!

Baclofen withdrawal can be serious and may include a range of physical and psychological symptoms.

Some early symptoms of baclofen withdrawal are:

  1. Increased muscle spasms and spasticity.
  2. Anxiety and agitation.
  3. Insomnia or sleep disturbances.
  4. Fever.
  5. Sweating.
  6. Rapid heart rate (tachycardia).
  7. High blood pressure (hypertension).

Abrupt discontinuation of intrathecal baclofen can lead to more severe withdrawal symptoms, such as seizures, hallucinations, and even life-threatening complications like autonomic dysreflexia and rhabdomyolysis.

It is crucial to recognize early symptoms of baclofen withdrawal and seek medical attention immediately.

Gradual tapering of the baclofen dose under the supervision of a healthcare provider can help minimize withdrawal symptoms.

How do you manage a baclofen pump?

Regular follow-ups with healthcare providers are crucial for optimal pump management.

These visits allow for dose adjustments, monitoring of side effects, and assessment of the pump’s function.

The pump reservoir will also need to be refilled with medication periodically, typically every 1-6 months, depending on the specific pump and dosage.

In case of any issues, such as infection, malfunction, or a change in spasticity symptoms, you should contact your healthcare provider immediately.

What are the advantages of intrathecal baclofen vs oral baclofen?

Intrathecal baclofen offers several advantages over oral baclofen, including:

  1. Targeted delivery: By delivering the medication directly to the spinal fluid, intrathecal baclofen can provide more effective relief with lower doses.
  2. Fewer side effects: Since the medication bypasses the digestive system, patients may experience fewer side effects, such as nausea and drowsiness, compared to oral baclofen.
  3. Improved quality of life: Intrathecal baclofen pumps have been shown to improve patients’ mobility, reduce pain, and increase overall quality of life.

For a comparison between baclofen and another muscle relaxant, read my article baclofen vs tizanidine.

Does insurance cover intrathecal baclofen pump therapy?

Since treatment with intrathecal baclofen is approved by the FDA, most insurance plans, including Medicare and Medicaid, cover this method of drug delivery when deemed medically necessary.

It is essential to check with your insurance provider to determine coverage specifics and any out-of-pocket costs BEFORE agreeing to the surgery!


Potential Risks and Complications of Intrathecal Baclofen Pump Therapy

While intrathecal baclofen pump therapy can be a highly effective treatment for managing severe spasticity, it is important to be aware of the potential risks and complications associated with this therapy. Some of these include:

  1. Infection: As with any surgical procedure, there is a risk of infection at the implantation site. Proper wound care and monitoring for signs of infection can help minimize this risk.
  2. Pump malfunction: Although rare, mechanical issues with the pump may occur, potentially leading to an interruption in medication delivery. Regular follow-up appointments and monitoring can help detect and address these issues promptly.
  3. Overdose or underdose of medication: Incorrect dosing of baclofen can lead to side effects, baclofen withdrawal, or diminished effectiveness of the treatment. Careful monitoring by healthcare providers and patient reporting of symptoms are crucial for maintaining appropriate dosage levels.
  4. Spinal fluid leak: In rare cases, a leak of spinal fluid can occur at the site of the catheter insertion. This may lead to headaches or other symptoms and may require medical intervention.

Despite these potential risks, intrathecal baclofen pump therapy has been proven to be a safe and effective treatment option for many patients with severe spasticity.

It is essential to weigh the benefits and risks of this therapy with the guidance of a qualified healthcare provider.

Preparing for Life with an Intrathecal Baclofen Pump

Getting used to living with an intrathecal baclofen pump may require some adjustment, but most individuals find that the advantages of better spasticity control far outweigh any difficulties.

Here are a few suggestions to help you adapt to life with an intrathecal baclofen pump:

Stay knowledgeable: Learn about your pump, its purpose, and how to identify potential problems.

This information will enable you to take charge of your treatment and advocate for your requirements.

Maintain open communication with your medical team: Developing a solid rapport with your healthcare providers is vital for the effective long-term management of your pump.

Keep them updated on any changes in your condition or any concerns you might have.

Be diligent with follow-up appointments: Regular visits are crucial to ensure your pump is working properly and your medication dosage remains suitable.

It’s important to attend your scheduled refill appointments as advised by your healthcare provider.

Find a support network: Connecting with others who have experience with intrathecal baclofen pumps can offer valuable insights, motivation, and useful tips for living with this therapy.

By actively participating in your treatment, you can make the most of intrathecal baclofen pump therapy and enjoy a better quality of life.

This excellent video gives you a firsthand account of how an intrathecal baclofen pump has literally changed the quality of life of a real-life person affected by a motor-neuron disease:


Intrathecal baclofen pumps offer a targeted and effective treatment option for patients with severe muscle spasticity due to various neurological conditions.

By delivering baclofen directly to the spinal fluid, this therapy can provide significant relief, reduce side effects, and improve the quality of life for many patients.

If you or a loved one is considering intrathecal baclofen pump therapy, consult with a qualified healthcare provider to determine if this treatment is appropriate for your specific needs.

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